Seabuckthorn2u.com

When Sick, It Helps to Heal; When Healthy, it's a Supplement

 

Xu Mingyu 1, Sun Xiaoxuan 2, Cui Jinhua 3

(1, 2 Xiyuan Hospital of the Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine of China, Beijing 100091)

(3 Department of chemic engineering, Taiyaun University of Technology)

Abstract: According to historical records, China was the first to country to use seabuckthorn as a drug. In 1977, this plant was formally listed in the Chinese pharmacopoeia. Seabuckthorn contains biologically active substances with pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular and the immune system, and anti-senility, anti-inflammation and anti-radiation effect, etc. During the last ten years, research on seabuckthorn medicinal and health products has greatly advanced and many economic benefits have been gained from it in China.

Key words seabuckthorn, medicinal research, effective constituents, cardiovascular system, immune system, anti-cancer, anti-senility, anti-inflammation, anti-radiation.

The fruits of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) have been used as a drug by traditional Tibetan and Mongolian medicine since ancient times. It has pharmacological effects on the lungs, the stomach, the spleen, the blood circulation, which were recorded in some medicinal classics, such as Sibu Yidian [1] from the Tang Dynasty and Jing Zhu Ben Cao [2] from the Qing Dynasty. In 1977, seabuckthorn was officially for the first time listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia by the Ministry of Public Health [3]. Since 1985, meanwhile, medicinal research on seabuckthorn has received much attention in China. The great advances and demonstrations of its medicinal values have been seen in recent years [4, 5].

1     Origin and development of seabuckthorn medicinal products

In historical records, Chinese people were the first to use seabuckthorn as a drug. More than a thousand years ago seabuckthorn was recorded in Yue Wang Yao Zhen from the Tang Dynasty and in Sibu Yidian, whose writing was finished in the 8th century. Sibu Yidian is a classical Tibetan medical book with four volumes and 158 chapters altogether. Thirty chapters deal with seabuckthorn medicinal products, mentioning the pharmacological effects on inducing the expectoration, opening the inhibited lung energy, dispersing dampness, tonifying the YIN and strengthening the YANG. More than 60 entries refer to its capacity to strengthen the spleen and the stomach, and to promote blood circulation, to remove blood stasis, and there are 84 prescriptions with seabuckthorn, which come in the form of seven different preparations: decoction, powder, pill, medicinal extract, shortbread, ash and tincture. In the 18th century, Sibu Yidian was translated into Mongolian, and later it was translated by European countries for studying and commenting. In 1903, Sibu Yidian was published in Russia in St. Petersburg [6]. In 1952, Xu Zhonghu, an associate professor of Sichuan Medical College of China, rediscovered seabuckthorn in Tibet. Following this, the Sichuan Medical College took the lead in medicinal research on seabuckthorn, and an academic thesis was written by Xu Zhonglu et al [7]. The Preliminary Research on the Fruit Juice of Seabuckthorn was published in 1956. In 1977, seabuckthorn was for the first time listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

From 1985 to 1993, Chinese scientists were engaged in a series of scientific experiments on its juice, oil and other extracts with analysis of its nutrient and chemical composition, pharmacodynamics and toxicology. The results have been predicated that seabuckthorn was a medicinal food containing many kinds of vitamins, trace elements, amino acids and other bioactive substances, such as ß-carotene, VC, VB1, VB2, VK1, Zeaxanthin, lycopene, flavonoids, folic acid, sitosterol, triterpene, fatty acids, tannin acid, 5-HT ( 5- hydroxytryptamine) and umbelliferone, etc. In the former USSR it was discovered that the fruits of seabuckthorn contained more than 190 kinds of bio-active substances, and the oil contained 106 kinds of such substances. Of these, there were 6 kinds of fat-soluble vitamins, 22 kinds of fatty acids, 42 kinds of lipids and 36 kinds of flavonoids and phenols [8]. For these reasons, it has great potential in the medical field, both as a medicine and health food. So far, the registration number of the business permit of the seabuckthorn oil has been replaced five times since the first time it was approved as a drug for production and utilization by the Ministry of Public Health of the former USSR. The medical products made from it include simple prescriptions as well as complex ones, e.g., oil solution, soft extract, membranous preparations and aerosols. Seabuckthorn oil can be used to treat burns, skin radiation lesions, cervical erosion, gastric and duodenal ulcer, etc. [9].

2     Research and development of the effective constituents of seabuckthorn

The ripe fruit of seabuckthorn is a medicinal food containing many kinds of vitamins and trace elements and other biologically active substances. Its taste is sour due to its content of approximately 2 to 3.5% organic acid. Results of chromatograghic analyses have indicated that the ripe fruit of seabuckthorn contains malic acid, oxalic acid and another unidentified acid. These organic acids have certain physiological functions: remitting the toxicity of some medicines like barbitals and antibiotics, preventing teratogenesis, damages from x-rays and side effects of oxygen therapy. There are also significant contents of carotenoids ( including ß- carotene, ?ß-4, 4biketone-ß-carotene, ?-carotene, zeaxanthin, lycopene and polyring-lycopene), progestin, flavoxanthin, cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, neoxanthin and VC, VK, VE,  (including a , ?,VE ) of which VC and VE are the major components of antioxidants [10].

The content of phospholipids in the ripe fruit (including lecithin, cephalin, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidyl) is about 0.5%. These substances, as part of the membrane mitochondrion, participate in the electronic migration and the oxidative phosphorylation, can promote cellular metabolism, and have an anti-fatty liver, anti-cirrhosis effect. There is 0.09% to 0.36% betaine in the ripe fruit, which is the methylating product of glycine and has anti-ulcer, and preventative and curative effects on arteriosclerosis. Also, there are the flavonoids, whose main components are the leucocyanidin, catechin, flavonol and trace flavanone. From the flavonol, the isorhamnetin, quassin and camellin can be isolated. The flavonoids and other phenols can increase the resistance of the human body, retard osmosis of the capillary wall and prevent VC from breaking up. The physiological effects of flavonoids on the blood vessel wall require the participation of VC; their activity can stabilize VC in the body, and they can reduce VC oxidation. These substances also have the following functions: controlling arteriosclerosis, lowering the cholesterol level, turning hyperthyroidism into euthyroidism and eliminating inflammation [11].

Phenols are effective against oxidation, tumorigenesis and radiation, and can sustain the activity of many biologically active substances, e.g., the ant-tumorigenesis effect of leucocyanidin, the enhancement of X-ray effectiveness in cancer treatment by catechin, and the remarkable anti- tumorigenesis and anti-radiation effect of quassin.

Chlorogenic acid and other phenol compounds can facilitate the biosynthesis of gastric acid, stimulate gastric juice secretion, combine with taurine and take part in diuretic action and in strengthening the function of capillaries, and, at the hypophysis level, regulate thyroid function.

The seabuckthorn oil extracted from its ripe fruit contains more than 60% of palmitic and palmitoleic acid. The most active biological fractions among them are the unsponified parts, which can co-exist with VE, carotenoids, beeswax and the sterols with ß-sitosterol as majority. The ß-sitosterol is considered one of the active compounds used to prevent and cure arteriosclerosis [12].

The peel of stem and fruit contains 5-HT, a rare occurrence in the plant kingdom. The 5-HT existing in a free or grouped state, can act as a neurotransmitter and regulate human emotion, blood pressure (BP), body temperature and hormone level. It can also have important anti- radiation, anti-infection and anti-cancer functions, and can promote coagulation by transforming fibrinogen into fibrin.

The leaves and fruit contain coumarin, which can strengthen the function of the capillaries, has styptic and anti-coagulation functions, anti-spasmus, anti-vitiligo, anti-turmorigenesis, anti- numbness, anti-pyreticosis effects, and can regulate disorders of the gallbladder. There is also trierpene, whose representative is the ursolic acid which has an effect similar to that of adrenocortical hormone (ACH). It can control the actions of sodium (Na+) and chlorine (CI-) in vivo, but does not inhibit the metabolism of potassium, and it can cure bronzed skin (hypocorticoidism), heal wounds, ulcer and inflammation.

The leaves contain ß-amyrinoley-lalcohol acid. It can dilate the cardiac and cerebral vessels, facilitate blood circulation and slightly lower the blood pressure [13].

To sum up, seabuckthorn contains so many biologically active substances that its development for medicinal and health products has great potential.

3     Research on pharmacological effects of seabuckthorn

3.1   Cardiovascular system

The total flavonoids of Hippophae (seabuckthorn) (TFH) extracted from the leaves and fruit is a group of compounds containing seven kinds of flavonoids. Of these, the main components are isorhamnetin and quercetin. Zhang Maoshun, Wang Jialing and others [14] of the West China Medical University experimented with TFH, treating coronary heart disease using a random double blind control test. The results showed that TFH could remit angina and improve the mechanocardiography and the ischemic electrocardiogram. As for this aspect, its curative effect is better than that of isosorbide dinitrate, which might be due to the increased volume of coronary blood flow and myocardial nutritional blood flow, and the decrease of myocardial oxygen consumption and inhibition of platelet aggregation.

 

Wang Bingwen and others [15] of Xi'an Medical University investigated the effects of TFH extracted from the leaves of seabuckthorn on white rats' cardiac function. The internal pressure peak of the left ventriculus and its maximum rate of change (dp/dtmax) increased distinctly, the time from the left ventricle starting a contraction to the occurrence of a dp/dtmax was shortened distinctly, the diastolic pressure of the left ventricle and the left ventricular pressure of the isovolumetric relaxation phase diminished, cardiac output, cardiac index, heart stroke index, and left ventricular power index of the myocardium increased. Further research showed that TFH could strengthen the contractility of the extra-corporeal papillary muscles of guinea pigs. The mechanism might be related to its effect on both the inward flow of extra-cellular Ca2+?of the cardiac muscles and the Ca2+?release from intracellular reservoirs.

Liu Fengming et al. [16] of the Baotou Medical College experimented on the extra-corporeal cors of white mice with arrhythmia. They discovered that TFH could prolong the time of ventricular fibrillation, postpone the atrioventricular conduction, lower the heart rate, and attenuate the myocardial contractility. In addition, TFH could slightly prolong the refractory stage (or period) of the extra-corporeal left atrium function, and counteract distinctly the action of the allorhythmia of the extra-corporeal right atrium of guinea pigs.

Chai Quiyan, et al. [17], of Shanxi Medical Institute experimented with seabuckthorn extract (SE) (extracted by alcohol) on white rats. It was shown that SE had considerable anti-mycardial- ischmia, anti-hyperlipemia and anti-fat-liver effects. Seabuckthorn oil could decrease cholesterol, triglyceride and ß-lipoprotein (LP), and counteract hyperlipemis induced by the experimental high fat diet.

Based on the above advances in research, Tongliao Pharmaceutical Factory of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China began to produce Acetylsalicylic Flavonoid Tablets. In 1992, it was selected as one of the new and high grade products of the region. Based on 303 cases of clinical observation by Tongren Hospital affiliated to the Capital Medical College, Xuanwu Hospital, Friendship Hospital and four more hospitals in Beijing, the general curative effectiveness, i.e., more than 90% in the treatment of stenocardia and almost 50% in ECGs (electrocardiograms) has been proven [18]. Now this drug has been approved.

3.2    Immune System

Zhong Fei et al. [19] of the Nanjing Medical College of the Railway Ministry experimented on mice and guinea pigs with the compound extracts of Hippophae (CEH) (seabuckthorn). It was discovered the CEH had anti-anaphylactic effects and could strengthen the phagocytic function of the mouse macrophagocyte, increased serum-lysozyme in mice and alexin in guinea pigs. Thus it was proven that CEH can strengthen non-specific immunity functions. In mice, the serolysin level and the serum-accelerator level were distinctly increased. So was the capacity of the splenocytes

to produce hemolysin and the percentage of the Stable Rosette Forming Cells (SRFC). Immune suppression caused by cyclophosphamide was counterchecked. CEH concentration was in direct proportion to its own counteraction against the interleukin-2 (IL-2) produced by the mice. It was obvious that CEH could regulate the cellular immunity and the hormonal immunity at every one the many links and levels. This provided the experimental basis for CEH to be widely used in the therapy of immune diseases.

Ren Lisa et al. [20] of Shanxi Cancer Institute experimented on mice with the bone marrow micronucleus technique. It was shown that seabuckthorn seed oil had the capacity to restore, under inhibited states of immune function, the natural killer cell level.

Li Diandong et al. [21] of the Medicinal Biotechnology Institute of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences researched on combining the polymerase chain reaction with the T- lymphocytes multiplication induced by the mitogen, and on seabuckthorn juice effect on secretion, which was caused by IL-2, of the old mouse's splenic lymphocytes. During senescence, the multiplication of the splenic lymphocytes and the secretion of IL-2 decrease along with the age increase. It was discovered that the multiplication index of the splenic lymphocytes of the mice, which were fed seabuckthorn juice, was higher than that of the control group at the same age. The difference between the two was very significant (P<0.01). Therefore it was believed that seabuckthorn juice could promote the immune function in mice, whose mechanism might also be realized by the mouse gene expression.

In brief, the active principals in seabuckthorn can act as cleaning the human free radicals in vivo, increasing IL-2 content of old mice in vivo and affecting the gene expression. Thus it can promote the organic immune function. The IL-2 as immunomodulator can play an important part in strengthening the human resistance against diseases and in postponing senescence.

3.3    Anti-tumorigenesis pharmacology and development of auxiliary anti-        cancer medicine.

The direct effects of seabuckthorn on the tumorigenesis, in addition to its indirect ones caused by general immunity or other mechanisms, include inhibiting action on the cancer cells and blocking the carcinogenic factors. Zhang Peizhen et al. [22] of the Gansu Cancer Institute experimented on mice transplanted tumors, including sarcoma (S180), lymphatic leukemia (P388) and B16. It was found that both intra-peritoneal injection of seabuckthorn oil and oral administration, inhibited the tumor from developing. Seabuckthorn juice can both kill the cancer cells of S180 and P388 and inhibit growth of the cell strains of the human gastric carcinoma (SGC7901) and lymphatic leukemia (L1200).

Yang Jianping et al. [23] of Shanxi Cancer Institute experimented on mice with inhibiting the Ellis-ascites carcinoma in vitro with seabuckthorn oil and fruit residue. The results showed that it could prolong the life of the mice with Ellis-ascites carcinoma. It was further found that bioactive substances extracted from seed oil and bagasse had cellulotoxic effects on extrinsic cell strains of human leukaemia (K562).

Tang Jing et al. [24] of Shanxi Branch of Chinese Medical Association investigated seabuckthorn juice effects on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), the carcinogenic factor of liver cancer. They discovered that the number and area of the GCT focus, which is the hepatocyte proliferation (i.e. precancerous lesions), were reduced. Li Yong and others [25] of Shanxi Medical College reported that in simulated human gastric juice in vitro, the synthesis of N-nitrosomolane could be blocked by diluted seabuckthorn juice. Compared to the control group which received the same concentration of ascorbic acid, the difference in blocking the synthesis of N-nitrosomolane was significant (P<0.01), showing that seabuckthorn was superior to ascorbic acid. It indicated also the possible presence of other blocking substances. In another experiment, it was further proven that seabuckthorn juice can effectively block the synthesis, in vivo, of N-nitroso compounds in white rats preventing it from inducing cancers. Its effect on preventing cancers was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

To sum up, the research results showed that seabuckthorn extracts had the effect of promoting the immune function of animals with tumors, the activity of the superoxide dismutase (an oxy-radical scavenger), and could activate the phagocytosis of the macrophage. The above mentioned results showed that seabuckthorn extracts had, to a certain degree, anti-cancer effects. If an anti-cancer adjuvant (co-operative anti-carcinogen) is developed from the extract, the immunity of cancer patients can probably be strengthened and the side effects caused by chemotherapeutic agents might be decreased.

At present, research work is being carried out both in vivo and in vitro. More research should be done in the future. It is necessary to extract pure effective substances from seabuckthorn oil and to determine effective and proper applications. According to the regulations for new drugs, the second stage of clinical research should be applied for.

3.4 Anti-senilism

It is believed that senility and many lesions are closely related to peroxide effects in vivo. Therefore, blocking the peroxidation and elimination of the free radicals produced by the peroxidation have become the focuses of attention.

Jing Yuehua and others [26] of Shenyang Applied Ecology Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences discovered superoxide dismutase in seabuckthorn juice and its leaves. It acted in the same way as VC, having anti-oxidation effects and clearing away free radicals on the cellular membrane.

Rui Lixin and others [27] of Shanxi Medical College researched into the effects of seabuckthorn oil on the erythrocyte membrane G-6PD and Na-K-AtPase of guinea pigs fed seabuckthorn oil showed increased activity. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is the product of lipid peroxides on the erythrocyte membrane, and the hemolysis percentage of the erythrocytes induced by MDA were significantly inferior to the groups not fed or fed with VE. Compared to the VE group at the equivalent dosage, the effects of seabuckthorn oil were superior to VE. That showed that seabuckthorn can postpone senility and prevent lipid peroxidation.

Ju Haisong and others [28] of the Inner Mongolian Medical College investigated TFH effects on active oxy-radicals. They discovered the TFH could significantly inhibit the chemiluminescence of the human polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA) and distinctly clear away the super-oxide free radicals produced by the purine oxidase system and the active oxy-radicals, including the free radicals of the superoxide negative ions and the hydroxy free radicals.

In summary it was discovered that the active compounds of seabuckthorn could promote the immune function and regulate the activity of immune cells in vivo, and could play an important role in promoting human resistance against diseases and postponing senescence.

3.5 Anti-inflammation and anti-radiation

Xu Mingyu et al. [29] of Xiyaun Hospital of the Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine of China showed that seabuckthorn oil had obvious effects on anathrepis, eliminating inflammation and slough, easing pain, promoting immune function and strengthening body resistance. All this provided a scientific basis for clinical treatments of the chronic bed sore (pressure sore).

L. D. Lebedeva et al. [30] of the Chemical Institute of the Tadzhikistan Academy of Sciences injected experimental animals with seabuckthorn oil. During 20 to 30 days, the development of the artificially induced inflammation of mouse subcutaneous tissue was inhibited, and the anti- inflammation effects was strengthened.

Analyses of seabuckthorn oil in the USSR showed contents of more than 180 mg/100 g of carotenoids (lycopenes and its derivants), VE 110 mg/100 g, oleic glyceride, fatty acid, citric acid and steric acid. Among them, carotene could form VA in vivo, facilitate metabolic normalisation and recover injured tissue. VE proved to be an anti-senilism substance, which could control proteo-metabolism and metabolism of nucleic acid and therefore counterattack tissue senility. The unsaturated fatty acid played an important part in repairing tissue. Seabuckthorn oil was produced by the former USSR, both for oral medication and for external application. It was used to treat radiation injuries, burns, vagina mucoctis mucitis, the endocervicitis, the erosion of cervix, gastric and duodenal ulcer, and improved curative effects were obtained. These medical products had no toxic and side effects [9].

Jiang Zhenyi et al. [31] of the Second Army Medical University of China found that healing effect of seabuckthorn seed oil on the white rats gastric ulcer model caused by acetifiation and chronic reserpinization was superior to cimetidine. They further extracted and isolated the active principles from seabuckthorn seed oil and discovered that ß-Sitosterol-ß-D-Glucosid was a constituent significant for healing the gastric ulcer.

At Xi'an Medical University, extensive studies have been carried out. Studies by Wu Airu et al. [32] on the treatment of chronic cervecitis with seabuckthorn oil and the oil embolus with seabuckthorn compounds showed that improved curative effects were obtained, with a general curative effectiveness of 97%. Che Xiping et al [33] studied seabuckthorn embolus effect on easing pain and eliminating inflammation. They found that the time of the mouse torsion reaction stimulated by the acetification decreased significantly (P<0.05), after the mice were enforced with the gastric perfusion. The threshold of pain value increased significantly (P<0.05), the development of ear inflammation was inhibited distinctly (P<0.05), the mouse peritonitis exudation stimulated by the acetification decreased distinctly, and it eliminated inflammation and eased pain. Li Mingzhong et al. [34] treated radiation esophagitis and other injuries in white rats with a mixture of seabuckthorn oil and other Chinese medicines, and found the anti-radiation effect of the mixture to be superior to the control groups (simple seabuckthorn oil or simple Chinese medicine). Zhang Wenlu and others [35] studied the treatment with seabuckthorn oil of acute radio-dermatitis in mice and patients with tumors (caused by radiotherapy), acute radiodermatitis, mucositis mucitis, non- radiodermatitis, ulcer, faulty union of wounds etc. Improved curative effects were obtained. Xu Hanqing and others [36] treated chloasma and chronic skin ulcer with seabuckthorn oil by oral or external application and again found improved curative effects. Fan Yulin and others [37] used seabuckthorn oil in the clinical treatment of 56 cases of traumatic perforation of the tympanic membrane. It was found that seabuckthorn oil, due to its high viscosity, could reunite the valvulae of the perforated edge, facilitate the exudation and hematopedesis of the tissue fluid of the wound, the cellular infiltration, the metabolic process of the epithelial layer of the tympanic membrane and the next two layers of cells, and the full layer hyperplastic reunion of the tympanic membrane.

They also experiment on preventing the allergic reaction to gentamycin in animals. The electorcochleogram was taken as the change index of the auditory function. It was found that seabuckthorn oil has preventative effects and could recover the normal hearing threshold, and increase iron and zinc contents in the perilymph of the deaf animals. It was believed that the preventative effects of seabuckthorn oil were related to the zinc-like effects of the zinc-regulator actions, in addition to its actions of acupuncture like, anti-allergic reaction, opsomic immunity function and improving nutrition.

B. A. Fayman [38] of the former USSR treated the postoperative wound of tonsillitis with seabuckthorn oil and it was shown that the oil could ease pain, decrease allergic reaction and facilitate exfoliation of the post-tonsillectomy nick membrane (cicatrix of tonsil).

Wang Naiwen et al. [39] of the General Medicine Administration of Inner Mongolia

experimented on 190 King white rats with 60Co-?-ray and deep x-ray irradiation respectively and compared the group fed with seabuckthorn seed oil to that enforced by gastric perfusion at different dosages. It was found that the oil could obviously protect heart, spleen, liver, lungs and bone marrow.

Cheng Tijuan et al. of the Lanzhou Medical College experimented on white rats and mice with establishing liver-injury models so as to investigate the effects of seabuckthorn seed oil. The results revealed that it had improved effects on the hepatic injury caused by CCI4, alcohol and paracetamol (SGP, MDA and GSH of the hepatic injury could be improved). The results were in agreement with those of Zhao Tiande and others [40].

Hou Wenming et al. [41] of the Shanxi Medicinal Institute conducted long term toxicity tests with seabuckthorn fruit residue oil in white rats. No negative effects were observed at a dosage of up to 18g/kg, which was nearly 20 times the clinic dosage. It was believed that as long as no denaturation occurred, the oil was non-toxic and safe to use. Due to the absence of any toxic effects, the oil could be safely used as medicine, food additive and cosmetic. Numerous experiments were made on animals regarding the anti-inflammation and anathrepsis effects of seabuckthorn oil. Reserpinization and acetification were used to create white rats gastric ulcer models. Seabuckthorn oil could heal the ulcers. By using 60Co-ray, acute roentgenopathy could be induced. X-rays can cause radiation esophagilis and radiodermatitis, and the curative efficiency of oil was considerable. Numerous animal tests and clinic applications have proven the curative effects of seabuckthorn oil on radiodermatitis, non-radiodermatitis (pressure sore), mucositis, erosion of cervix, ulcer, etc. It was shown that the oil eliminates inflammation,

facilitates anathrepsis and tissue regeneration and cures ulcer. It is anticipated that many new drugs and compound preparations will be research and produced.

4. Development of medicines and health products from seabuckthorn.

The following products are already available in China:

4.1 Raw seabuckthorn such as unstrained juice, clear juice, concentrated juice, seabuckthorn fruit oil and seabuckthorn seed oil, seabuckthorn fruit residual oil, raw powder, seabuckthorn pigment, TFH, etc.

4.2 Beverage with seabuckthorn such as soft drink (including syrup), alcoholic drink (sweet wine, semi-fluid drink, wine, beer), fruit juice (clear or unstrained) aerated fruit juice, powder, nutrient solution, jam, etc.

4.3 Cosmetics with seabuckthorn such as hair shampoo, skin care cream, beauty cream, body lotion.

4.4 Medicines such as cough remedy (relieving cough, dissolving phlegm, and treating chronic tracheitis), seabuckthorn (Acetylsalicylic) Flavonoid Tablets (treating the ischemic cardiopathy and remitting the angina cordis), compound oil-embolus extractum, and capsule (for inflammation and ulcer), Healthcare Medicine, including seabuckthorn oil, instant powder or granule preparation of seabuckthorn, and seabuckthorn dried cream.

 

植物珍品 神奇果王 
华南理工大学食品营养学博士   曹劲松 

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经过几千年的变迁,沙棘逐步分布于中国北方和中亚为中心的世界上20多个国家。其地理范围:西起英格兰的西南沿海,东至中国的河北省,北起挪威的东北部,南至亚洲西南部的土耳其;分布在东经2°–115°,北纬27°—68°50′的广大区域。目前,世界上最大的天然沙棘林集中分布在中国,中国沙棘总面积居世界各国之首,占世界沙棘总面积的95%。中国20多个省(区)有沙棘,主要分布在“三北”地区(东北、西北、华北),累计沙棘面积(野生加种植)达133万hm2(2000万亩)。据国家有关部门制订的沙棘发展规划,到2010年,中国将新增加沙棘面积200万hm2(3000万亩)。届时,中国将占世界沙棘总面积的98%。
 

二、世界国家研究沙棘药用、食用历史 
中国以研究利用沙棘早而闻名遐迩。中国是世界上沙棘药用记载最早的国家,也是古代记载沙棘药用经典著作最多的国家。其中,最具影响的应属1200多年前唐代,中国藏医药经典著作《四部医典》。本书收集记载了许多沙棘在医疗方面的应用资料。全书共4卷156章,其中有30章记载了沙棘具有祛痰、利肺、化湿、壮阴、升阳的功能,60余处记载了沙棘健脾养胃、化瘀止血的作用,记载了用沙棘制成的汤、散、丸、膏、酥、灰、酒等7合剂以及84种沙棘的配方。1688—1689年,《四部医典》以英文评论形式传入西方。国外从我国藏医药应用疗效中尝到启发,陆续取得了一系列的研究成果。俄罗斯于1965年才有沙棘食用方面的记载。前苏联研究开发利用沙棘,对沙棘的信用性开发研究,转向医药性的开发应用研究,就是从藏医药文献中了解到沙棘的医药价值后而起步的。1941—1942年,他们第一次分析出沙棘含V-C和胡萝卜素以来,到20世纪80年代中期,已相继发现沙棘所含生物活性物质上百种之多。
国际上,随着人们对沙棘认识的提高和深化,开发利用的展开和加强,科研范围的扩展与深入,文献量不断增加。据有关部门查阅文献统计,1687—1985年近300年间,国外研究和开发利用沙棘资源的文献达625篇,其中,英文60篇,德文120篇,俄文445篇。据不完全统计,1967—1984年,发表有关沙棘的文献510多篇,占近300年发表沙棘文献量的80%以上。可见,20世纪60—80年代,国际上研究、开发、利用沙棘掀起了高潮。
1971年,芬兰土耳库大学校长阿恩•罗西教授发表专题论文《沙棘属植物分类研究》,是当前西方研究沙棘属的第一篇权威性著作。对近百年来国际上专家学者研究沙棘的状况进行了综合概述,对沙棘细胞学、形态学、分类学进行了探索,阐述了沙棘进化与分布史的特征,分析了沙棘繁殖与散播对沙棘变异的关系,是当前国际上研究沙棘的代表作。
中国解放前百余年,对沙棘的研究开发基本上处于停滞状态。解放后,关于沙棘研究的第一篇论文,是四川医学院徐仲吕副教授写的。他于1952年进藏途中发现了沙棘,并对其营养成分进行了分析,写出了《醋柳果汁的研究》。1958年,他又写了研究沙棘的论文《醋柳——医药新发现》。解放后到1986年这30多年间,据有关单位统计,我国沙棘文献数量为282篇,其中,1984—1986年间就发表了240多篇,占到全部中文文献的89%以上。由此而见,中国沙棘研究、沙棘事业发展的第一个高潮是进入20世纪80年代以后的事情。特别是1985年以后,有关单位编写的沙棘文献摘要,对我国解放后至1995年底的沙棘文献资料进行分类摘编,总计50个类目1823条,其中,绝大多数为进入20世纪80年代以后所发表的文献资料。这些沙棘文献,有的是沙棘综合性论述,有的是沙棘基础复学的专业研究,有的是沙棘育种与造林学阐述,有的是沙棘资源管理、果实采收及加工,有的沙棘产品开发与应用。仅就沙棘基础科学来说,一些专业沙棘文献分别涉及有沙棘生物学特性,沙棘分类学、细胞学、遗传学、生理学、生态学、微生物学以及与沙棘相关的动物学等。综合起来说,国内外对沙棘的研究重点,可以分为两大类,一类是围绕着沙棘作为人类健康的卫士展开的,另一类是围绕着沙棘作为生态建设的先锋树种展开的,以便使其改善大自然,更好地服务于生态建设;研究发现它的多种有效成分,进行药品、功能食品等开发利用,以造福于人类健康。一种植物,同时具有这样两大类特殊作用、特定功能的,在植物界是不多见的。沙棘,正是这样一身而二任的奇世珍宝。
 

三、沙棘——人类的健康卫士 
关于沙棘对人类健康的重大作用,中国有文字记载的研究利用沙棘的历史已经有1200多年。中国古代藏医蒙医把沙棘果实当作治病的常用药物,具有祛痰、利肺、养胃、活血、化瘀的药理功效。沙棘果实药、食两用,在国内外已经引起了越来越多的人们的重视和重用。原苏联经过40多年的研究发现,沙棘果实中的活性成分已达190多种,沙棘油中的活性成分有106种,其中包括脂溶性维生素6种,脂肪酸22种,脂类42种,黄酮和酚类36种。这许多有效成分,说明沙棘是一种十分珍贵的药用植物,既可以制成各种药品,又可以制成各种功能食品,以及其它多种人类所需要的产品。1977年,中国卫生部首次将沙棘正式列入《中国药典》。沙棘对于治疗各种疾病,预防各种疾病,强身健康,延年益寿,有着特殊重要的功能和作用。从截止到目前人们研究沙棘的成果看,故冠以“健康卫士”的称号。
沙棘含有极其丰富的生活活性物质,在人类医疗、保健方面,有着广阔的开发利前前景。
  1、沙棘所含的营养成分 
  1)维生素类
   维生素对人体的健康非常重要,但他们大多数不能在体内合成,必须有外界补充,现代医学研究表明,最好补充天然维生素,而沙棘中含有6中重要的维生素,其中维生素C、E、K1、β葫萝卜素4种维生素含量是植物界中最高的。
  维生素C
  沙棘果中富含V-C含量是一切蔬菜、水果类之冠,故有V_C之王的美誉。下面是沙棘果实与常见果蔬维生素的含量比较:
品种  沙棘果  中华猕猴桃  红枣  山查  苹果  梨  葡萄  桃  西红柿 
含量 
(mg/100g)  825  100—420  380  39  5—46  2—28  4  9  10—61 
相比倍数  1  2—8  2—2.5  20  2—150  50—400  200  150  15—80 
  沙棘除含V-C 、V-E、β-胡萝卜素外,还含有 B族维生素,沙棘是维生素“源”植物。β-胡萝卜素的生理功能。除已知的转变成V-A后,发挥V-A的功能,如治夜盲症、骨质增生、促进雌雄生殖细胞发育、保护上皮细胞生长与分化防止腺体委缩等以外,近些年来发现β-胡罗卜素有预防肺癌的作用。对宫颈癌、卵巢癌、食道癌、喉癌、口腔癌和鼻癌也有预防作用。沙棘V-E目前预知有4种,其生理和药理上的功能主要是:对生物膜的保护作用,抗自由基和抗脂质过氧化作用,提高免疫功能的作用,促进肝细胞解毒作用,降低脂肪治动脉粥样硬化作用,延缓衰老、防治褐斑作用,保护神经系统和防治贫血等作用。
沙棘中的β-胡萝卜素的含量比葫萝卜还要多,它的作用是其他葫萝卜的两倍,也是葫萝卜素中最活跃的。它以叶绿素这种形式存在于沙棘果中。
2)黄酮类化合物
沙棘果和叶中黄酮类成分已被鉴定的有:槲皮素、异鼠李素、山萘酚及其苷类、杨梅酮、氯原酸、猪草苷、黄芪苷等。沙棘果汁中含有7种黄酮类化合物,主要为异鼠李素、异鼠李素-3-β-D-葡萄糖苷、异鼠李素-3-β-芸香糖苷和槲皮素等。沙棘果实中黄酮类化合物主要有白花青素、儿茶素、黄酮醇和少量的黄烷酮,从黄酮醇中又分离出异鼠李素、苦木素、山茶素等。黄酮类和其它酚类化合物具有增强人体的耐受性,减少毛细血管壁的渗透性,预防V-C受到破坏。黄酮类对血管壁的生理作用可通过V-C的参与来实现,它的活性可以对机体中的V-C起稳定作用,而且还能把被氧化的V-.C重新还原过来。这些物质还具有抑制动脉粥样硬化的发展,降低血胆固醇水平,使甲状腺功能亢进恢复正常,也有抗炎症的作用。
3)三萜、甾体类化合物
原苏联专家已从沙棘叶、果和油中分离出几十种三萜、甾体类化合物。
4)油和脂肪酸 
沙棘的果肉、种子、果皮、茎皮和叶中都含有脂肪油,其含量与油的性质随部位不同而有所差异。其各部位的含油量为,果实2%—5%,果肉3%—9%,种子9%——18%,叶1%。而榨出果汁后的干燥残渣含油量为18%—22%。通常所说的沙棘油是指是指种子油和果肉油而言,种子油中含胡萝卜素类不多,没有胡萝卜素,果肉油中富含萝卜素和类胡萝卜素。陈体恭等曾对甘肃中国沙棘油和籽油中的几类成分进行了测定,有关数据见表2。 
表2  沙棘油中几类成分的总含量 
项目  蛋白质 
(mg%)  总糖 
(mg%)  V-C 
(mg%)  总酸 
(mg%)  总黄铜 
(mg%)  总植物碱 
(mg/kg) 
果油  57.06  400  1.927  37.6  1065.23  — 
籽油  95.55  550  0.817  10.7  688.02  3.4

5)氨基酸和蛋白质
沙棘果肉、果汁、种子中均含有蛋白质,而且含量是相当高的。沙棘果肉和果汁中含有种类齐全的氨基酸,而且包括人体不能合成的、又是所必须的8种氨基酸。
6)酚类及有机酸类
沙棘中的多酚类化合物包括乌索酸、香豆素、β-香豆素、酚酸类等。沙棘中含有苹果酸、柠檬酸、酒石酸、草酸和琥珀酸等多种有机酸类,以及果胶、丹宁等成分。沙棘中的酚类化合物具有抗氧化的作用,能使许多生物活性物质保持其活性,并有抗肿瘤和抗辐射的作用。例如白花青素化合物具有抗肿瘤作用,苦木素具有明显的抗肿瘤与抗辐射的作用。
沙棘叶和果中含有香豆素,具有增强毛细血管功能及止血、抗凝的作用,并有解痉、抗白癜风、抗肿瘤、麻醉、解热和利胆等作用。含有的三萜烯类则以乌索酸为主要代表,可抑制机体中的钠、氯离子而不影响钾的代谢,用于治疗铜色皮肤病(肾上腺皮质激素不足),具有治疗伤口、溃疡、糜烂性炎症等病变的作用。
7)挥发油类成分
迄今为止,沙棘中已鉴定出200多种挥发性成分。
8)微量元素
微量元素对动、植物,尤其是对人类具有十分重要的生理和病理意义,与人类的健康息息相关。不同生长环境下的沙棘,其所含微量不等,有的含十几种,有的含几十种。沙棘果肉、叶子、种子、果渣等中,都含有大量的微量元素。目前已知人体所必需微量元素为14种,沙棘果汁含有其中的11种。
9)磷脂类
磷脂(包括卵磷脂、脑磷脂、磷脂酰肌醇、磷脂酰甘油)的含量约占沙棘果实重量的0.5%左右,这些成分作为构成膜线粒体的成分,参与电子转移和氧化磷酸化作用,促进细胞代谢,有利于抗脂肪肝,抗肝硬化作用。还含有0.09%-0.36%的甘氨酸的氨基酸甲基化产物——甜菜碱,它具有趋脂和抗溃疡特性,可用于防治脉粥样硬化症。
105-羟色胺
沙棘茎皮和沙棘果中,含有5-羟色胺,这在植物界中是罕见的。它以游离态和化合态存在,可作为一种神经递质,对人的感情状态、血压、体温、机体的内环境、激素等,有重要的调节作用,还具有抗强烈辐射、抗传染病和抗癌的作用,并能加速纤维蛋白原转化为纤维蛋白,有助于血液凝固等方面的作用。
11)糖类
    沙棘中含有5%——10.5%的糖类,以葡萄糖和果糖为主。
2、沙棘的功效 
国内外的专家、学者在广泛展开对沙棘有效成分研究和开发的同时,也不同程度地进行了沙棘药理的研究和开发,初步发现了沙棘对人类若干疾病的预防和治疗作用。主要表现在以下一些方面:
A、对心脑血管系统疾病的作用
国内专家研究表明,沙棘总黄酮可以治疗冠心病、心绞痛,对心脏功能有加强作用,具有明显抗心律失常作用。沙棘黄酮及其它活性物质具有降低高血压、软化血管、改善血液循环等作用,对缺血性脑血管病症有防治和缓解作用,具有改善大脑供血供氧等作用。
B、对免疾系统的作用
免疫系统是人类抵御外界和自身各种致病因素伤害的防线之一。现代医学研究表明:人体衰老与许多疾病的发生及体内物质的过氧化作用有关。因此防止过氧化及清除体内过氧化产生的羟自由基及活性氧自由基成为搞衰老的关键。沙棘中的黄酮有直接捕获超氧自由基和羟自由基作用。V-E、V-C、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)能抗氧化作用、消除人体内的自由基,增强免疫功能,调节免疫活性细胞、有利于提高人体抗病能力、延缓人体衰老。沙棘籽油及沙棘汁在提高人体免疫功能、预防肿瘤发生、发展方面,具有积极作用。沙棘的有效成分具有消除人体内自由基的作用,从而提高免疫功能,对于提高人体的抗病能力,延缓人衰老有着重要作用。另外,沙棘富含的多种生物营养成分对护理皮肤、抗皱抗衰也有很好的作用。
C 抗肿瘤、抗癌作用
沙棘的抗肿瘤作用,除其通过免疫机制或其它途径所起的作用外,还有直接抑制癌细胞作用以及阻断致癌的作用。沙棘中的生物活性成分白花青素、苦木素、香豆素、5-氢色胺等,具有明显的抗癌活性和作用,对人体内癌细胞具有一定的杀伤及抑制作用。据美国1992年科技10大新闻报道,β-胡萝卜素和V-E组合在一起,具有很强的防癌、搞癌作用。只有沙棘油将这两种成分结合在一起,沙棘油具有防癌、搞癌的作用。根据沙棘的这种搞癌作用,将沙棘提取物制成一种抗癌药物的可能性越来越大。
D、抗炎症疾病、搞辐射损伤的作用
沙棘具有明显的抗炎镇痛作用,有良好的化腐生肌作用,促进组织再生,促进溃疡愈合,有一事实上的扶正作用,并能提高免疫功能。前苏联的沙棘油可内服也可外用,用于治疗辐射损伤、烧伤、阴道粘膜炎、子宫劲内膜炎、宫颈糜烂和胃、十二指肠溃疡,均有良好的疗效,且无毒副作用。国内专家研究表明,沙棘油对多种炎症有疗效,如咽喉炎、扁桃腺炎、上颌窦炎、牙周炎等,均有良好的治疗作用。沙棘油具有搞辐射,促进上皮组织再生的功能,可制成系列化妆品,以达到对人体护肤的作用。
E、 对烧伤、烫伤、刀伤和冻伤,有治疗作用
我国专家临床实践证明,沙棘油有促进组织再生和上皮组织愈合作用,临床上用于治疗烧伤、烫伤、刀伤和冻伤,均具有良好效果。不仅可以治疗轻度烧伤,也可以治疗Ⅱ、Ⅲ度烧伤,每日于患处涂敷2-3次,即可获得满意的治疗效果。
F 对呼吸系统病病治疗作用
沙棘果实具有止咳祛痰、消食化滞,活血化瘀的作用。沙棘含有的黄酮,主要成分之一是槲皮素,已经证明具有明显的祛痰、止咳和平喘作用,该成分已成为治疗慢性气管炎的主要有效成分。
F、对消化系统疾病和治疗作用
民间早已用沙棘来治疗消化系统疾病,包括胃、十二指肠溃疡、炎症、消化不良等。
关于沙棘治疗胃溃疡的作用,临床有不少报道。1959年,前苏联报道了患者口服沙棘油,每日3次(饭后服),34-47天可使胃溃疡和十二指肠溃疡的病情得到控制或好转。
沙棘油有明显的抗胃溃疡作用,还用来治疗肠道的各种炎症和痢疾。用沙棘油制成的栓剂,用来治疗直肠道疾病,如直肠炎、直肠溃疡糜烂、卡他性直肠炎以及由慢性结肠炎引的内疴等病症,均有满意的疗效。
G、降血脂
血脂是流动的血液中的营养物质,含有胆固醇、甘油三脂、磷脂和游离脂肪酸。血脂是油质的,不溶于水,正常的人体,血脂较低,不会影响血液的流动,但血脂越高,血液就越粘稠,血液的流动性也越差。随着血脂增高,人的身体就会逐渐发胖,而沙棘中含有沙棘黄铜对降血脂、抑制身体肥胖、促进血液循环具有显著作用,据专家的临床和动物实验,每天喝50ml—100ml沙棘汁,可以有效降低血脂、消除多余的脂肪,其作用相当于跑马拉松8公里燃烧脂肪的效果。华西医科大学刘秉文等给病人服用沙棘汁,1至3月后,在61例高血脂、肥胖者者中的胆固醇、甘油三脂均有明显下降。
H、对肝症等的保护作用
沙棘中含有的苹果酸、草酸等有机酸具有缓解抗生素和其它药物的毒性作用,保护肝脏。沙棘中卵磷脂等磷脂类化合物是一种生物活性较高的成分,可促进细胞代谢,改善肝功能,肮脂肪肝,抗肝硬化。另外,沙棘油对心脏、肝脏、肺脏及骨髓均有明显保护作用。
I、健脑益智,促进儿童生长发育作用
沙棘含有的多种氨基酸,多种维生素、微量元素、不饱和脂肪酸,对儿童的智力发育及身体生长均有很好的促进作用。长期服用沙棘汁对儿童智力水平、反应能力及保持旺盛的精力和体力均有良好的作用。
J、对眼科疾病的治疗作用
用沙棘治疗眼科疾病取得了显著效果。用它可治疗沙眼、眼性性甲状腺肿、角膜炎、水泡、眼皮烧伤和结膜炎等。在治疗这些病时,沙棘油既可制成滴剂使用,也可制成10%-20%的眼药膏使用,还可制成肌肉注射使用。前苏联曾报道了用沙棘油治疗眼部烧伤的病例118人,每人滴5-6次沙棘油剂到结膜囊,可明显缩短治疗期。对于角膜成形手术后并发炎症的患者,每日3次滴沙棘油,连续30天,也收到令人满意的效果。
从上述对沙棘有效成分和沙棘药理效应的简要综合分析来看,沙棘全身都是宝。在一种植物中具有这么多对人类的有效成分,至今在自然界并不多见。认识沙棘,发展沙棘,善待沙棘,重视沙棘,重用沙棘,对于人类的健康事业,对于人类自身的发展有百利而一害。
 

四、沙棘——生态建设的先锋 
自1985年前水电部长钱正英提出“以开发沙棘作为加速黄土高原水土流失治理的一个突破口”以来,水利部一直把沙棘作为水土保持生物措施的关键树种,从1998年开始,晋陕蒙砒砂岩沙棘生态工程被列入国家计委和水利部的水土保持专项计划,到2001年,沙棘种植达7.3万hm2沙棘苗圃186.7hm2。国家林业局制定了<<1999~2010年沙棘发展规划>>,沙棘造林占到”三北”地区灌木林规划种植面积的50%,同时,还在全国确定了30个沙棘发展重点县,相应建立一批沙棘良种繁育基地.在全面展开的西部大开发生态环境建设中沙棘将发挥越来越突出的先锋作用。
在生态建设上,沙棘有以下一些重要作用。
沙棘是保持水土的开然堤坝。沙棘根蘖性强,串根繁殖,形成密集茂盛的群体。其林冠的承雨率为40%~49%,林内枯枝叶的持水量相当于自身重量的3倍。一丛沙棘,就是一个蓄水池。其发达的根系和繁茂的灌丛,覆盖在地面,固结着土体,减少和缓和了降雨对地面的侵蚀,拦洪落淤,稳定坡面,固土防冲。在河岸、沟坡营造的沙棘林,一般有3~4年时间可以郁闭。沙棘萌蘖能力强,在落淤高度内的干枝上,能不断地萌发出许多新枝,有力地促使新淤的土壤迅速固结,形成冲不垮的沙棘植物坝。在治理河流泥沙流失方面,沙棘已经发挥了重大作用。
沙棘是防风固沙的绿色屏障。沙棘根系发达,枝叶茂密,防风固沙能力很强。沙棘繁殖能力强,一般情况下,每亩60株沙棘,7~8年后,可自繁到1000~2000株,密度增至数十倍。因此,沙棘防风固沙的面积,随着沙棘自繁面积的扩展而扩展,形成为自然延伸、扩展的绿色屏障。沙棘林带防风固沙的有效范围一般可为株高的20~25倍,沙棘林内每年可固沙积沙5~10cm厚,且沙棘在沙砾上可以生长,久而久之,荒沙地上,由于沙棘丛生而成为一片绿洲。
沙棘是改良土壤的固氮能手。沙棘根多,根幅比冠幅大。沙棘具有根瘤,可以固氮,其固氮强度比豆科植物还强。在海岸滩地,每亩13~16年生长的沙棘林,年可固氮12kg,相当于25kg尿素。通过沙棘根系自身的穿透、挤压、胶结,死根的腐烂等作用,改良了土壤结构,增加了有机质,增加了土壤肥力。沙棘根瘤除固氮作用外,还有吸水、使土壤有机物矿质化、变难溶解的无机及有机化合物为固化形态的机能。沙棘叶内含有0.573%的全氮和大量有机物质,落叶后的腐殖质可以增加土壤肥力,而且还具有良好的改良盐碱土的作用。可以说,一丛沙棘林,就是一个小型氮肥厂。
沙棘是植被绿化的高效技术。沙棘是一种速生灌木或小乔木,在立地条件较好的情况下,当年生树高可以1m左右,3年林地可郁闭。实生苗3~5年进入开花结果期,7~8年进入结果盛期。
从生态建设上看,我国“三北”地区有100多万km2的荒漠化地区和水土流失地区适宜种植沙棘。目前,我国沙棘面积(野生加种植)仅133万hm2(2000多万亩,折合1.3万km2)。即使在50万km2的适宜土地上种上沙棘,也得多少代人的努力才能实现。
沙棘中有效活性成分的提取和开发利用,是一项长期的任务。沙棘,是果蔬中少有的集蛋白质、不饱和脂肪酸,维生素为一体的富营养原植物,特别是氨基酸、维生素的高含量、多含量,已确定了沙棘在这方面的明星地位。开发、利用这些有效成分,研制出新型的功能食品、药品,成了新世纪沙棘科研、开发工作者义不容辞的责任。
沙棘以极富营养的多种生理和药理功能,以及其生长在高山、深谷、丘陵、黄梅等地天然、绿色、无污染的品质,作为食品工业的优良原料是再好不过的。目前,这样的食品太少,这也是今后发展的广阔天地。

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